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  • Pakistan Agriculture and Farming Cover

    Welcome to PakAgriFarming

    PakAgriFarming is commited to high standards in extension of agriculture in Pakistan through simple and factual information and topics related to the hottest issues in Pakistan Agriculture.

  • Approved cotton varieties for Punjab 2014

    کپاس کی کاشت کے لیے موزوں اقسام

    پنجاب میں کپاس کی کاشت کا آغاز ہو نے والا ہے اور پیشتر علاقوں میں میں رنیع کی فصل کی برداشت کا وقت قرہب ہے۔ اس لیے بروقت کپاس کے بیج کا انتخاب اچھی پیداوار حاصل کرنے کی طرف پہلا قدم ہے۔۔۔

  • Introduction, characteristics and objectives of tillage

    Intoduction and Objectives of Tillage

    Tillage is the primary requirement before any cropping activity. Perhaps, if one is ignorant about tillage, he knows nothing about farming. So, let's look into a brief intro...

  • The Next 10 Years of Tunnel Farming in Pakistan

    The Next 10 Years of Tunnel Farming in Pakistan

    It's been 10 years since the introduction of tunnel farming in Pakistan, the conversion rate has been slow but are there any chance of rapid growth of tunnel farming in Pakistan? Let's disover...

  • Wheat Production Technology for Rainfed Areas of Punjab for 2013-14

    Wheat Production Technology for Rainfed Areas of Punjab for 2013-14

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop in Pakistan and staple food. Wheat has a large share of cultivated land in rabi season and hence large production is expected...


Monday, September 30, 2013

کینولا کی پیداواری ٹیکنالوجی

Posted by Unknown On Monday, September 30, 2013

موجودہ دور میں جہاں دیگر غذائی اجناس کی اہمیت ہے، وہاں پر سرسوں کی پیداوار بھی بہت اہم ہے۔ کیونکہ یہ نہ صرف غذائی  ضروریات پوری کرتا ہے بلکہ خوردنی تیل کا مآخذ بھی ہے۔ حرفِ عام میں اسے 
کینولا کہا جاتا ہے۔ ذیل میں کینولا کی پیداواری ٹیکنالوجی دی جا رہی ہے۔

Production technology of canola 2013-14 in urdu

Thursday, September 26, 2013

Beneficial Uses of Weeds

Posted by Unknown On Thursday, September 26, 2013

Weeds, the plants out of their proper place, have been known to cause many damages andlosses to crops and some are also known to cause health hazards. A number of management strategies for weeds are also adopted. But there are some uses of these weeds. 
Latana camara inflorescence
Latana camara inflorescence 

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Ideal Characteristics of Weeds

Posted by Unknown On Wednesday, September 25, 2013

A weed is defined as a plant of its proper place or where it is not required. A weed has more potential than the crop, compete with the crop, seed formation and distribution is before the seed and fruit production from the crop. 
Cotton field infested with cynodon dactylon and other weeds
Cotton field infested with Cynodon dactylon and other weeds

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Undergraduate Admission in UAF and its Sub-Campuses for 2013-14

Posted by Unknown On Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Undergraduate admission open in University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and sub-campuses Toba Tek Singh, Burewala and Dera Ghazi Khan for the academic year 2013-14.
UAF undergraduate Admission Notice 2013-14 in all campuses
UAF undergraduate Admission Notice 2013-14 in all campuses

Sunday, September 22, 2013

Crop Classification based on Purpose in the Field

Posted by Unknown On Sunday, September 22, 2013

There are a number of different purposes and uses of the crops. The crops and cropping systems can be classified in a number of different ways based on a long list of categories. Previously we have discussed 'Botanical classification of plants' and 'Agronomic Use classification of the crops'. Now, we will discuss a classification of crops based on their use in the field in different cropping systems;
Crop Uses (cover)
Crop Classification based on Purpose in field (article cover)

UAAR Undergraduate Admissions Notice Fall-2013

Posted by Unknown On Sunday, September 22, 2013

Undergraduate and masters admission open in PMAS, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi.
UAAR Undergraduate Admissions Fall-2013 Notice
UAAR Undergraduate Admissions Fall-2013 Notice

Friday, September 20, 2013

Introduction to Agrometeorology in Pakistan

Posted by Unknown On Friday, September 20, 2013

Meterology is the word derived from ‘meteoro’ which means ‘above the surface of earth’ and ‘logos’ means ‘scientific study’. It is actually a branch of Physics and deals with the study of lower atmosphere. In short, it is the study of characteristics and behavior of atmosphere. It explains and analyses the changes of individual weather elements such as air pressure, temperature and humidity that are brought about due to the effect of insolation (radiation from the sun received by earth’s surface).
Weather monitoring device installed near an agricultural field
Weather monitoring device installed near an agricultural field

Thursday, September 19, 2013

Seed Sowing and Methods of Seed Sowing

Posted by Unknown On Thursday, September 19, 2013

Sowing (or seed sowing) is defined as the process of placing the seed in soil to germinate and grow into plant. 
In comparison, planting is the putting the plant propagules in soil for growing plants. Propagules can be seedlings, roots, tubers, leaves, or cuttings. 
And transplanting is term used for the planting the seedling grown into nursery to different field, pot or plot for different purposes.
Seed broadcasting by farmer
Seed Broadcasting by Farmer

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

BS Admissions Notice in Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Punjab University, Lahore

Posted by Unknown On Tuesday, September 17, 2013

BS Agriculture (04 year program) Admissions open in Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore.
BS Admissions Notice in IAGS, Punjab University, Lahore
BS Admissions Notice in IAGS, Punjab University, Lahore

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Production Technology of Wheat in Rainfed Areas of Punjab for 2013-14

Posted by Unknown On Sunday, September 15, 2013

Wheat is the most important cereal crop in Pakistan and staple food. Wheat has a large share of cultivated land in rabi season and hence large production is expected. The seed selected should be pure, healthy and free of disease. The seed should be bought from trusted sources, or the varieties approved by the local agriculture department should be used for sowing. The germination rate of seed should not be less than 85% or the seed rate should be increased accordingly.
Wheat field rainfed areas
Wheat field
For late sowing (pachaiti kasht), the seed should be increased to some extent because the germination rate is less in low temperature and less number of tiller form. The production of wheat is mainly from primary tiller, so in order to get sufficient produce in late sown crops, seed rate is increased to increase the number of primary tillers. In addition to this, increase in seed rate is also beneficial for the weed control, because in the presence of more wheat seedlings lesser number of weeds will be able to grow.


Name of variety
Time of sowing
Suitable areas
Oct-15 to Nov-15
All rainfed areas of Punjab
Oct-20 to Nov-15
All rainfed areas of Punjab
Oct-20 to Nov-15
All rainfed areas of Punjab
Oct-20 to Nov-15
All rainfed areas of Punjab


Wheat has a number of prominent diseases like rust, smut and kernel bunt are more damaging. In the cropping season 2012-13, farmers had to face losses due to these diseases so they should use resistant seeds against these varieties. The seeds should also be treated with some fungicide before sowing.


The field should be ploughed after the first monsoon rain with chisel or moldboard plow, so that the field is ploughed to considerable depth and later plank it. Then the field should be ploughed after every monsoon rain, this will store water in the soil as well as uproot the weeds. All the required fertilizers should be added to the soil 02 days before cultivation, the field should be ploughed and leveled so that wattar should reach the soil surface. All of the fertilizer should be added to the soil before seed sowing. Seed drill should be used for seed sowing.


For all irrigated and rainfed areas of punjab
For sowing till Nov-20
50 kg per acre
The germination rate should not be less than 85% or the seed rate should be increased appropriately.
For sowing between Nov-21 to Dec-15
60 kg per acre
Number of tillers formed in Chakwal-50 is greater than other varieties, so the seedrate should be kept 5 kg lesser than the other varieties.


Phosphorus is an essential element for wheat, it stimulates increase in the root length, provide strength to tillers, thickens the grain and stimulate immunity against many diseases. So the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus should be 1:1.5, this means 1.5 bags of DAP and 1.5 bags of urea should be used. If phosphorus is used in lesser quantity, it weakens the plant, the plant remains green, the crop takes more time for ripening and the immunity against diseases also declines. So, the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus is very important. It can guarantee an increase of about 5-10 mand per acre.
Table: Recommended quantities of the fertilizers for use in the rainfed areas according to the amount of rainfall in those areas.
Annual Rain
Annual rainfall
Nutrients (kg per acre)
Quantity to be used in field before sowing
Low rainfall areas
(Rajanpur, Layyah, D.G Khan, Muzzafargarh, Mianwali and Khushab)
Less than 350 mm
1 bag DAP + ¾ bag Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
2 ½ bags Single Super Phosphate (SSP) + 1 bag Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
2 bags Nitrophos + ½ bag potassium sulfate
Moderate rainfall areas
(Chakwal, Pindi Gheb, Tila Ganng and Pind Dadan Khan)
350 - 500 mm
2 bags DAP + 1 bag Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
5 bags Single Super Phosphate (SSP) + 2 bags Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
4 bags Nitrophos + ½ bag potassium sulfate
High rainfall areas
(Rawalpindi, Attack, Jehlum, Narowal, Gujrat, Sohawa, Khariyaan and Shakargarh)
More than 500 mm
2 bags DAP + 1 bag Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
5 bags Single Super Phosphate (SSP) + 2 bags Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
4 bags Nitrophos + ½ bag potassium sulfate


Green and organic manures are very important for a healthy crop stand. If animal dung is available during the time of field preparation, then 8-10 tons per acre (800-1000 kg) should be used. Another option is green manuring, if time is available than some legume crop should be sown in the field and at time of flowering it should be ploughed into the soil, this will increase the organic matter contents of the soil to great levels. Green manuring with leguminous crops should be only done once in three years.


Weed eradication from the field is one of the methods to increase the production from the same piece of land. According to an estimate, wheat production can be increased 14-42% if the weeds are properly eradicated from the field. Following strategies can be opted for weed management;


If the seed rate is high, it means there will be more plants per acre and more competition for the weeds and less nutrients for them. So the weeds can lose in this competition.


If it rains withing 18-20 days of sowing, then bar harrow should be used twice in the field. It is one of the best methods of weed control. Wattar condition also prolongs if such method is followed.


Manual weeding with khurpa and kasola in the dry field is also very effective method in controlling the weeds but only if enough labor is available.


Each farmer should try to produce his own seed for future use. And to get pure, healthy and quality seed, the farmer should follow these instructions carefully;
1. Only the recommended varieties should be cultivated.
2. Plants of other varieties should be uprooted from the field.
3. Plant with smut disease should be uprooted; put in some bags and removed from the wheat field. Such plants should be buried in the soil away from the cultivated lands.
4. Irrigation and fertilizer requirements of the fields intended for seed production should be fulfilled at all times and at all cost.
5. Different varieties of wheat should be cultivated in different plots.
6. The thresher should be cleaned before and after threshing of every different variety of wheat to maintain varietal purity.
7. Name of the variety should be written on the bags.
8. The moisture contents of the seeds for storage should not be more than 10%.
9. Seed should be stored in well lighted and ventilated storehouse.  

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Characteristics for Evaluation of Seed Quality

Posted by Unknown On Thursday, September 12, 2013

Good quality seeds are those which are of same variety and contain little to no impurities and shows a good performance in the field. 
Following criteria can be used to describe the quality of good seed;
1. Varietal characteristics
2. Seed lot characteristics
3. Seed viability
Seeds of pulses
Seeds of pulses

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Benefits of Organic Matter in Agricultural and Horticultural Soils

Posted by Unknown On Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Organic matter is considered the most valuable asset for the agricultural soil with regard to its use in crop production and landscaping. Here is a brief list of benefits from the presence of different sources of organic matter in the soil;
Benefits of Soil Organic Matter (Article cover)
Benefits of Soil Organic Matter (Article cover)
1. Darker soils warm up faster in spring season. (Darker color of the soil is due to presence of humus and other types of organic matter.)
2. Dead organisms (plants and animals) in the soils are converted to mineral and humus by the action of living organisms (bacteria and fungi).
3. Decomposition of the organic matter in the soil provides a source of slow release fertilizer.
4. Dead organic matter is the source of food for soil microbes and increases their activity.
5. Aeration in the soil is improved by the presences of recognizable dead organic matter; it also opens up the soil physically.
6. Fine unrecognizable organic matter has good effect on the water holding capacity of the soil.
7. Humus in the soil forms a coat around soil particles in with a black colloid and improves the soil characteristics.
Crumbs clearly visible in soil with high organic matter contents
Crumbs clearly visible in soil with high organic matter contents
8. Crumbs are easily formed on sandy and silty soils when humus is present.
9. The surface charge of humus combines the clay particles and thus makes heavy soil lesser sticky and more crumbly.
10. Atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by nitrogen fixing rhizobia and azobacter in soil.
11. Earthworms, plant roots and other burrowing insects improves the soil structure.
12. Bacteria in soil are effective in detoxifying many insecticides and herbicides.
13. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils is also increased and thus the leaching of cation from the soil profile is reduced.

Thursday, September 05, 2013

Organophosphates - their History, Mode of Action and Toxicity

Posted by Unknown On Thursday, September 05, 2013

Organophosphates also known as the OPs. The word organophosphate is derived from the combination of two words; ‘organic compounds’ and ‘phosphate group’. There is no known clinical use of these chemicals. However, the main uses are as agricultural insecticides and fungicides; used in household and garden sprays for flies and other insects.
Organophosphates (Cover)
Organophosphates (Cover)

Tuesday, September 03, 2013

Sources of Soil Organic Matter in Agricultural and Horticultural Soils

Posted by Unknown On Tuesday, September 03, 2013

The organic matter contents of a good mineral soil are 2-5% which consists of organic matter in the form of living and dead organic matter. Living organic matter consists of soil microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, nematodes and earthworms), plant roots and insects. 
Dead organic matter is added after the death of these living organisms and addition of leaves, bark of trees and dead animals. Farmyard manure, composts and mushroom compost are also source of dead organic matter. All of this organic matter is ultimately broken down into carbon dioxide, water and minerals. Humus is the collection of organic compounds that persists in soil for longer duration.
soil section from a grass field
Soil section from a grass field


Living organisms in the soil ecosystem for food webs and food chains. 
1. The source of converting sunlight and simpler compounds into organic compounds are the Producers, which are involved in photosynthesis (green plants mostly in agricultural soils). Next are the primary, secondary and tertiary consumers. The most important after producers are ‘decomposers’ which decompose and convert dead organic organisms and organic matter to simpler compounds for reuse; and successfully complete the nutrient cycle of many nutrients which also become available to the plants.
Decomposers can be further distinguished into primary decomposers which attack the freshly dead organic matter such as earthworm and some species of arthropods and fungi. Secondary decomposers live on the wastes decomposed by the primary decomposers and include many species of fungi and bacteria in particular.
1. Plant Roots
Plant roots are the main source of organic matter and aeration in the soil. Roots evade the soil and when the plant is uprooted or dead, the roots decompose and create space for aeration of soil plus they add to the soil organic matter. The penetration of soil by roots is decreased when the soil becomes too compact. Otherwise roots play a vital role in the development and improvement of soil structure.
2. Earthworms
earthwormEarthworms are the ‘farmers' friends’ which are very important for the primary decomposing of soil organic matter as well as improving the soil structure. The casting activity of soil is only done by few selected species of earthworms. The casting species of earthworms eat both soil and organic matters and the excreta from their intestines consist of intimately mixed, partially digested, finely divided organic matter and soil.

Earthworm burrows created by their activity in the soil are important source of improving soil structure in uncultivated areas and grasslands but sometime the burrows are troubling the lawns. Some species of the earthworms are present in the topsoil layers while others go on to make vertical burrows up to 2 meters depth.
Earthworm activity is largely affected by soil organic matter, soil moisture contents, soil pH, temperature and soil type. Large populations of earthworms and greater activity is seen in the soils with high organic matter contents; slightly higher calcium reserves, basic pH and light and medium loams soils. Small populations of earthworm exist in acidic soils; soils with low organic matter contents, clayey soil, peat and gravelly soil.
Snails, slugs, nematodes and arthropods also have role in the decomposition of the organic matter of soil but some are also important horticultural pests.
3. Bacteria
Bacteria are the most abundant living organisms in soil. About 1000 million bacteria are present in one gram of fertile soil. Bacteria have strong roles in the decomposition of organic matter, weathering of the rocks, detoxification of pesticides and herbicides. Some bacteria are also fixing nitrogen in the soil and others are denitrifying bacteria; root nodulating bacteria form association with the roots of some plants to help uptake of nitrogen. Bacteria are also important for the completing the nutrient cycles in the soil environment.
Bacterial population in the soil increase with the presence of high organic matter contents, high food supply, pH of 5.5-7.5 and temperature close to 350C.
4. Fungi
Fungi along with bacteria are most important decomposers in the soil. Fungi are more tolerant to harsh environment than other micro ogranisms in the soil. They can exist in soils with low calcium; soils with acidic/neutral pH and low organic matter. There are different species of fungi, some can decompose only simpler organic matter, others decompose cellulose and some also have ability to hydrolyze lignin. Hence, fungi are most important primary decomposers in the soil.
Fungi also form mutualistic association with algae in ‘lichens’ and roots of higher plants in ‘mycorrhizae’.


The freshly dead organic matter in the soil has effect on the physical properties of the soil but nutrients are released only after the decomposition of the organic matter. The decomposition of the green leafy organic matter is usually very fast and completes quickly as compared to the decomposition of the fibrous or woody organic matter which takes longer for decomposition and forms brown humus.
Humus forms in the soil as the result of decomposition of fibrous or woody organic matters which does not completely decomposes due to lignin contents and other decomposition-resistant organic matter. These ‘brown’ contents form humic acids which form a collection of black colloidal-gels that surrounds the soil particles and imparts characteristic brown color to the soil.
This gel has cation exchange capacity (CEC) and add to cation holding capacity of the soils. It also holds the soil aggregates together. In sandy soils, with low clay contents, humus holds the soil particles together. The humus is decomposed completely by action of bacteria in the soil so new organic matter must be added to soil to replace the decayed to retain the soil properties.


All the nutrients in the soil are in constant circulation between soil, plants, animals and air. 
Mineralization is the process of formation of simpler inorganic compounds such as ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and sulphates. 
Humification, on the other hand, is the process for the formation of humus in the soil through decomposition of fibrous/woody dead organic matter.
Nutrient cycles on-going in the soil include;
1. Carbon cycle
2. Nitrogen cycle
3. Sulphur cycle
Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio (C:N)
Carbon and nitrogen are two most abundant elements in soil. The nutrient cycles of both are continued at the same time in the soil. The change in the quantity of one of them will have an effect on the amount of other. C:N ratio is much wider in plant organic matter as compared to other materials; this organic matter is utilized in decomposition by the microbe. Carbon serves as the energy source to the microbes but nitrogen is utilized by microbes in the formation of proteins. Thus there is an imbalance in the C:N ratio.

Sunday, September 01, 2013

Cropping Technology (CPT) of Carrot (Daucus carota) in Pakistan

Posted by Unknown On Sunday, September 01, 2013

Carrot (Daucus carota) is a root-crop known for its vitamin rich red/orange roots which are used in making foods and salads. Carrot is known as “apple for the poor” because of its rich in nutrients and low cost. Carrot also has a long list of medical and health benefits for humans. So, farmers should follow modern cropping technology for gaining good yields and profits from this healthy vegetable.
Carrots in Pakistan
Carrots in Pakistan

Botanical Classification

Carrot is a dicot plant.
Daucus carota

Climatic Requirements

Carrot is a crop of cold climate. Thus a temperature of 7 to 240C is good for the germination of the crop. Temperatures between 25 and 350C do not give good germination rates and the size of carrot root remains small. Temperatures between 20-250C are best for healthy crop yield.

Soil Requirements

Mera soil in good tilth is highly recommended for good crop growth although carrots can grow in most of the soil types. The carrot remains small in clayey soils and give off many small roots, similarly, high organic manures are also not good for carrot development because they will affect the shape and colour of the carrot. So, for good and healthy carrots, halki mera soils are best.


T-29 is recommended by agriculture department of Punjab Govt.

Time of Sowing

Agaiti (early) sowing should be completed by the mid of August whereas pachaiti (late) sowing continues till the end of October. Time from obtaining good yields in Punjab is in the mid of September. Imported varieties are sown in November and December. For good results, the seed should be dipped in water for about 12 hours. Temperatures close to 350C do not give good germination rate.

Seed Rate

Seed rate of 6-8 kg per acre is recommended. Healthy seed with good seed vigor should be selected from trusted sources. Recommended fungicide should also be applied before sowing. In case of agaiti (early) sowing, the seed rate can be increased to 15 kg per acre.
carrot crop Daucus carota
Carrots crop (Daucus carota)

Seedbed Preparation

Fine seedbed should be prepared by plowing the field with deep plough thrice (03 times) at field capacity (wattar). Clods of soil and farm yard manure (FYM) should not be present in the field because they will affect the development of carrot roots. Weeds should also be cleared by daab method before plowing the field.


1. Organic manures
Organic manures are best option. Well rotten FYM is good for the development of healthy carrot roots whereas, incomplete or mildly rotten FYM causes many roots in the carrots. Organic manure should be spread 2 months earlier to sowing carrots or it can be given to soil one crop earlier in the previous season so that FYM is well mixed when time for carrot sowing arrives.
2. Chemical fertilizers
Nitrogenous fertilizers are not good for carrots. 2 bags of DAP and 1 bag of potash per acre should be well spread in the field at the time of seedbed preparation. 1 bag of ammonium sulphate should be applied after one month of crop stand.

Irrigation Scheduling

Furrows should be made at about 2.5 feet distance in levelled seedbed, seed should be spread by kera method at a depth of 1 cm and cover it with soil. Then field should be irrigated so that the water do not reach the seed directly. Initially, irrigation twice a week and later, once a week is better, or the gap between successive irrigations can be adjusted according to the field conditions. Irrigation should be terminated around 2 weeks before harvest, so that carrots gain sweetness and the uprooting also becomes easy.

Weeding and Thinning

Weeding is good in the early crop development. Weeding during week # 2 to week # 6 should be done to reduce competition for the crop. After that, the crop is healthy enough to compete weeds.
Thinning is also very important for good crop. Thinning should be done so that the plant to plant distance remains 2-3 centimeters. Plants should be uprooted along with roots; both weak and highly vigorous plants should be uprooted during thinning.


Carrot matures in 100 to 120 days, but for use as household vegetable, carrot is ready to be harvested in 80-90 days. It should be harvested when diameter of the carrot root reaches about 2-4 centimeters. Irrigation should be terminated 2 weeks earlier to harvest.

Carrots field ready for harvest
Carrots field ready for harvest
Daab: The practice of weeding the field in which the field is first irrigated and the weeds are allowed to appear, when the weeds have appeared, the field is ploughed after a few days to eradicate the weeds.